Sodium Percarbonate (Uncoated)
TAED
STPP
LABS
LAB
Calcium Carbonate
Sodium Perborate (Mono)
Sodium Perborate (Tetra)

Sodium Perborate

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Sodium Perborate monohydrate (Synonyms: sodium peroxyborate, sodium peroxoborate, PB1) is similar to sodium percarbonate as a famous oxygen bleach agent. Sodium perborate offers many of the functional benefits as liquid hydrogen peroxide in a stable solid form. The oxidative power of sodium perborate improves the cleaning, bleaching, stain removal and deodorizing performance of powder detergent formulations, all fabric dry bleaches, denture cleaners, automatic dishwasher detergents and various institutional and industrial laundry products.

Sodium perborate monohydrate is prepared by dehydrating sodium perborate tetrahydrate. The monohydrated sodium perborate is essentially showing three advantages in comparison with the tetrahydrated sodium perborate: a higher content of available oxygen, a higher heat stability and a higher dissolution rate into water. It provides a high available oxygen content equivalent to 32% hydrogen peroxide - 50% more active oxygen than the same weight of sodium perborate tetrahydrate. Sodium perborate releases nascent oxygen at elevated temperatures, it is a stable, solid source of active oxygen.

Sodium perborate will decompose in the environment to natural borate. Although boron is an essential micronutrient for healthy growth of plants, it can be harmful to boron sensitive plants in higher quantities. Care should be taken to minimize the amount of borate product released to the environment.

What is sodium perborate?

Sodium perborate usually exists in two forms, tetrahydrated and monohydrated. Sodium perborate tetrahydrate is obtained by addition of hydrogen peroxide to a sodium metaborate solution at a temperature close to 20.degree. C. Sodium perborate monohydrate is produced by dehydrating sodium perborate tetrahydrate in a fluid bed with heated air. Sodium perborate releases nascent oxygen at elevated temperatures, and so acts as a hydrogen peroxide bleach. The monohydrated form is essentially showing three advantages in comparison with the tetrahydrated form: a higher content of available oxygen, a higher heat stability and a higher dissolution rate into water. Sodium perborate has been in detergent and personal care formulations for many years. Its oxidative power improves the cleaning, bleaching, stain removal and deodorizing performance of powder detergent formulations, all fabric dry bleachs, denture cleaners, automatic dishwasher detergents and various institutional and industrial laundry products. Ití»s main disadvantage is that the bleaching action only takes place at elevated temperatures. To release ití»s bleaching action at lower temperatures, an activator must be added.

What are the differences between sodium perborate and sodium percarbonate?

Both sodium perborate and sodium percarbonate are oxygen release bleaching chemicals that are widely applied in various bleach compositions. It is known that sodium perborate as the bleaching agent has a high bleaching effect at high temperatures but the effect is lowered at low temperatures. On the other hand, sodium percarbonate has an effective bleaching action even at low temperatures and is very valuable from the viewpoint of saving of energy. Sodium percarbonate is an attractive perhydrate for use in detergent compositions because it dissolves readily in water, is weight efficient and, after giving up its available oxygen, provides a useful source of carbonate ions for detergency purposes. Sodium perborate has a better stability and has been a mature bleaching ingredients for long time. But it is increasingly replaced by sodium percarbonate duo to its disadvantages in energy saving and environment protection. Sodium percarbonate exhibits an excellent bleaching effect even at a low temperature and is environmentally friendly, but it is less stable in detergent formulations. However, many processes have been found to improve its stability.

Sodium perborate in detergent and bleach formulations.

1. Conventional detergent powders (Sodium Perborate Monohydrate, 8%~15%)

Ingredients

% By WT.

Sodium Perborate Monohydrate

10

TAED

2.5

Zeolite

28

Sodium Carbonate

20

Sodium Silicate

4

PCAs

4

Surfactants

15

Enzymes

0.5

Optical Brightners

0.3

Sodium Sulfate

9

Perfume

0.2

Antiredecomposition Agents

1

Moistures

5

Total

100


2. Compact detergent powders (Sodium Perborate Monohydrate, 10%~20%)

Ingredients

% By WT.

Sodium Perborate Monohydrate

15

TAED

5

Zeolite

24.5

Sodium Carbonate

20

Sodium Silicate

4

PCAs

4

Surfactants

15

Enzymes

0.5

Optical Brightners

0.3

Sodium Sulfate

5

Perfume

0.2

Antiredecomposition Agents

1

Moistures

5

Total

100

3. Oxygen Bleach Powder (Sodium Perborate Monohydrate, 30%~80%)

Ingredients

% By WT.

Sodium Perborate Monohydrate

45

TAED

15

Sodium Carbonate

40

Total

100

Sodium perborate monohydrate incorporated in tooth bleach compositions.
Since its introduction in early 1989, there has been significant interest among the dental profession and the general public for home-use tooth bleaching products and methods. Typical dental bleaching compositions include from 5-20% by weight of carbamide peroxide (CO(NH.sub.2).sub.2.H.sub.2 O.sub.2), which is a complex of urea and hydrogen peroxide. However, sodium perborate has been found to be an another dental bleaching agent.
An advantage of perborate-based bleaching agents rather than aqueous hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide is that perborates are allowed for dental bleaching procedures in some countries that do not permit the use of aqueous hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide for dental bleaching. Perhaps perborate compounds are more gentle on surrounding gums and tissues compared to either aqueous hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide. Nevertheless, perborates were found to be unstable when blended with carboxypolymethylene, which is the tackifying agent of choice in the vast majority of home bleaching kits presently on the market. For this reason, a tackifying agent that is stable in the presence of perborate bleaching agents has been developed, which comprises a mixture of a suitable polyol and a finely divided gel-forming particulate such as fumed silica, otherwise known as silica fume.
Below is a sample dental bleaching composition that combines the following ingredients (in weight percent):
** Anhydrous Propylene Glycol 54.3%
** Fumed Silica 20%
** Sodium Perborate Monohydrate 25%
** Sodium Saccharine 0.7%