Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide that wildly exists in animals, plants, microorganism and so on. And it is a non-reducing sugar which consists special double sugar molecules.
Trehalose( alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside ) so can form special protective membrane above the cell under the bad conditions of hyperthermia, high-coldness, dehydrating et al, which can protect organism molecules structure from being destroyed then continue the life body and the organic specialty.However,the other sugar in nature,such as sucrose and glucose,can not have the property.So it is rather suitable that trehalose was considered as¡°Sugar of Life¡±.Because endogenous trehalose of most life bodies known in nature is few,the protective efficiency is very obvious.Therefore, the pplication of exogenous trehalose become more important under the many areas related modern biotechnology.Applying present the most advanced bioengineering and producing process,we firstly produce trehalose in batch-bulk with the material of cassava starch, using the whole facilities built in international pharmaceuticals standard. The product reaches the level of the international similar products. For its special physics and properties,trehalose can be wildly used in foodproducts, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and agricultural science and various lines.
1. Mild sweetness:
Trehalose is 45% as sweet as sucrose when compared to a 10% sucrose solution. The temporal profile of trehalose shows a rapid onset to sweetness with a persistence slightly longer than sucrose. The taste profile is nicely balanced, and the mild sweetness of trehalose can allow other flavors in food systems to be enhanced.
2. non-reducing sugar:
Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar and therefore does not react with amino acids or proteins as part of Maillard browning. Flavor, color, and nutrition are stabilized to losses in quality that would otherwise result from the Maillard reaction.
3. High glass transition temperature:
Trehalose has a very high glass transition temperature compared to other disaccharides. This allows trehalose to remain stable under a greater range of temperature extremes, providing additional stability to glass systems into which it is incorporated. In addition, trehalose glasses are more resistant to moisture gain than other saccharide glass systems.
4. Chemical,acid and thermal stability:
Trehalose is stable under low pH conditions where other disaccharides typically undergo various reactions, such as hydrolysis into their component monosaccharides. This minimizes caramelization and browning which are typical of low pH systems that undergo heat processing.The result is retention of more natural flavors and colors in food systems.
5. Exceptionally low hygroscopicity
Trehalose dihydrate is stable up to 94% relative humidity. The low hygroscopic nature of trehalose dihydrate results in a free-flowing stable dry product. In food applications where sugars are in the crystalline form, the addition of trehalose can decrease moisture sensitivity and product caking.
Trehalose have many functions for its special molecule structure.
1¡¢protecting amylum from aging
Trehalose can protect amylum from aging effectively. And the effect is more evidence under the condition of low humidity or freezing temperature.
||Amylum aging rate (%)
2¡¢Stabilization of proteins and biological systems
Trehalose has been reported to be the most effective sugar for stabilizing proteins against damage caused by desiccation or freezing and maintain food flavour.
||Denature rate (%)
3¡¢suppression of fats' acidification
fats Is easy to be oxidated, then product peroxids and volatile aldehydes following which caused food flavour become awful rusulting in losting eatible value.most of foods have fats more or less. So it is a very important topic of maintaining food properties to restrain fats' acidification. Trehalose perfort rather good role to restrain fatty acid from acidification.
4. supply energy:
Trehalose, which is composed of two glucose molecules, is metabolized in an identical manner as other disaccharides (sucrose, maltose and lactose). After ingestion, trehalose is enzymatically broken down in the small intestine into two glucose molecules, which are then absorbed into the body by an active transport mechanism. Glucose is then utilized in the natural metabolic processes of life. Now trehalse has been shown to be a suitable energy source when consumed before,during and after exercise. The properties of trehalose, which make it particularly suited for products are:
-does not promote excessive insulin release
-lower peaker glucose and more sustained energy release
-empties quickly from the stomach
-low caries-promoting properties
5. lower Cariogenicity
Trehalose was tested in vivo and in vitro cariogenic systems. It was shown to have substantially reduced cariogenic potential when compared to sucrose. Trehalose does not cause laxation typical of other non-cariogenic sweeteners.
6¡¢Stabilization of biological enzyme
it is generally believed that some pathological changes, such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, aging, will be caused if superoxide increases in body greatly. Though there is SOD in body to eliminate excessive superoxide, it is still far away from sufficiency. Therefore, it is essential to take antioxygens in , for example, vitamin C, ¦Â- carotin from vegetable and fruid in daily life. Trehalose not only can stabilize the activity of SOD, but also promote these antioxygens to maintain the activity of SOD.
7¡¢protect organism molecules structure.
trehalsoe can form special protective membrane above the cell under the bad conditions of hyperthermia, high-coldness, dehydrating etc, which can protect organism molecules structure from being destroyed then continue the life body and the organic specialty.therefore, trehalose can keep vegetable, meat, and fruit fresh effectively.
Reference and Applications:
For its special physics and properties,trehalose can be wildly used in food products, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and agricultural science and various lines.
it is reported that all kinds of implemental enzymes, probe, substrate, antibody and biology reagents which are used in molecular biology can be keep in trehalose to save expensive cost spent in freezing storage.
Trehalose and its vitriol ramification can be used as moistur retention, stabilizer and property improver. Its fatty acid ramification is excellent surfactants.
Trehalose has many potential uses in food products:
(1)It moderates sweetness in cakes and biscuits, icings, bakery creams and fruit pie fillings, chocolate, and confectionery, especially in high juice and herbal products allowing the full flavour potential of the product to be appreciated without compromising product shelf life. It also facilitates fat reduction in sweet biscuits, bakery creams and frostings. In savoury biscuits and snacks, trehalose can be used to create innovative texture sensations.
(2)Trehalose can be used to enrobe confectionery products to form a stable, non-hygroscopic coating. Trehalose is excellent for panning. The unique solubility characteristics of trehalose readily lend themselves to panning and the resulting coating is highly stable and robust with an improved whiteness relative to other bulk sweeteners.
(3)Owing to its reduced cariogenicity trehalose can be used to formulate ¡®kind to teeth' or ¡®toothfriendly' products either as the sole bulk sweetener or in combination with other low cariogenic bulk sweeteners. A special grade of trehalose has been developed for use with polyols in chocolate. This has a positive heat of solution when dissolved, which minimises the characteristic cooling effect of certain polyols.
(4) owing to the high process stability of trehalose,hydrolysis does not occur and product colour is maintained.
(5)Trehalose can be used in condiments and savoury sauces to create new flavour sensations by moderating sweetness whilst maintaining product shelf life.
(6)In alcohol based beverages, trehalose provides mouthfeel without detracting from the sensory characteristics of the alcohol.
(7)Trehalose is particularly effective as a cryoprotectant for surimi. As trehalose positively controls water functionality at the protein/ water interface, firmness, elasticity and gel strength of the surimi is improved. The low sweetness of trehalose also enhances the taste quality of the surimi. Unlike other cryoprotectants used in surimi manufacture, trehalose does not cause ¡®throat burn' nor has any laxation problems.
Specification for D-Trehalsoe Dihydrate:
Appearance: White crystalline powder
Loss on Drying: 5% Max
Residue On Ignition: 0.1% Max
Assay: 99% Min
Arsenic: 1 ppm Max
Lead: 2 ppm Max