D-Glucosamine Hcl (66-84-2)
Chitosan (9012-76-4)
Glucosamine Sulfate Sodium Chloride
Glucosamine Sulfate Potassium Chloride
-D-Glucosamine Pentaacetate
Allyl -D-Glucopyranoside
Allyl -D-Glucopyranoside
Allyl -D-Galactopyranoside
Levoglucosan (498-07-7)
D-Arabinose (10323-20-3)
Benzyl -D-Mannopyranoside
-Chitobiose Octaacetate
Lactitol Monohydrate
-Lactose Octaacetate
Lactulose Crystal
Maltose Monohydrate
-Maltose Octaacetate
Maltulose Monohydrate (17606-72-3)
D-Mannitol (69-65-8)
Methyl -D-Rhamnopranoside
Methyl -D-Fucopyranoside
Methyl -L-Fucopyranoside
Methyl -D-Galactopyranoside
Methyl -D-Ribopyranoside
-D-Galactose Pentaacetate
-D-Mannose Pentaacetate
Phenyl -D-Galactopyranoside
D-Raffinose Pentahydrate
L-Rhamnose Monohydrate
L-Ribose (24259-59-4)
D-Ribose (50-69-1)
D-Tagatose (87-81-0)
D-Talose (219-996-5)
L-Talose (23567-25-1)
D-Turanose (547-25-1)
D-Melezitose Monohydrate
D-Glucuronic acid
1-Thio-b-D-Galactose Sodium


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Note: We are not affiliates of any company selling essential sugars because the ingredients can be obtained from foods. Please see Economical Alternatives .

Mannose appears to be the foundation of all the essential sugars. Mannose is formed from glucose in the body and used in the formation of short chain sugars naturally attached to certain proteins. It is involved in so many fundamental cell actions that any deficiency of this one saccharide is said to lead to a host of physical problems. Like xylose and xylitol, mannose has its own sugar alcohol form known as mannitol.

Called D-mannose, this form is now sold as a remedy for UTIs (urinary tract infections), but it is capable of so much more. Studies suggest that D-mannose is ten times more effective than cranberries in dislodging E. coli bacteria from the bladder wall, improving more than 90% of UTIs in 24-48 hours. However, unlike antibiotics, D-mannose does not kill any bacteria but simply displaces them, thereby, discouraging them from attaching to the wall of the bladder. In addition, because the body metabolizes only small amounts of D-mannose and excretes the rest in the urine, it does not interfere with blood-sugar regulation, even in diabetics.


Mannose is absorbed 8 times more slowly than glucose; and, when ingested, it is not converted to glycogen or stored in the liver, but rather Mannose goes directly to the blood stream from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, Mannose easily crosses the placenta allowing it to assist in fetal formation. Amniotic fluid has been shown to contain Mannose in amounts comparable to concentrations in the blood. Within an hour after ingestion, Mannose is widely distributed throughout body tissues and fluids. Highest levels are generally found in the liver and intestines.


Based on animal studies, it appears that Mannose is actively reabsorbed by the kidneys with very little being eliminated in the urine. There appears to be two different transport sites on the surface of the kidney tubules; one for Glucose and Galactose and the other for Mannose. Although Glucose and Galactose are excreted in the urine, very little Mannose is eliminated.



There have not been any adverse reactions to high doses of Mannose either orally or from injection. Based on animal studies, the highest dose for humans could be around 23 grams for a healthy 150-pound adult. However, that much is hardly necessary. In humans, no adverse effects have been noted when oral doses of approximately 15 grams were administerd. Even at oral doses as extreme as 53 grams per day given over an 11-month period showed no adverse side effects. However, when excessively large amounts (35 grams per hour) of Mannose was injected intravenously continuously for 10 hours, human subjects did experience fatigue, anorexia, malaise, and massive uric acid crystalluria. No matter how small or large the dosage, it should be divided in at least two portions so as to maintain a functional level in the blood.

Dietary Sources

It is not difficult to obtain plenty of Mannose in the diet. It is one of the few essential sugars that is easy to obtain. One of the main sources is Aloe vera gel , which contains acemannan? a Mannose polysaccharide. Another good source is ground Fenugreek as it contains a high amount of galactomannan (as does Carob gum and Guar gum), a polysaccharide of Mannose and Galactose. Bread Molds also contain small amounts of Mannose, a minor nutritional source of glyconutrients in the days when bread went moldy routinely and people were often too poor and hungry to worry about mold in food. Today, there are better and tastier ways to obtain glyconutrients.

Other sources include

Black or Red Currants, Gooseberries, Green Beans, Capsicum (cayenne pepper), Cabbage, Eggplant, Tomatoes, Turnips, Shiitake Mushrooms, and Kelp


  1. Mondoa, Emil I. MD and Mindy Kitei. Sugars that Heal . Ballantine Publishing, 2001.
  2. Elkins, Rita MH. Miracle Sugars . Woodland Publishing, 2003.
  3. Glycoscience website (This site prohibits direct linkage.)
  4. http://www.cdgs.com/freeze5.htm (an essay on Carbohydrate Deficient Glycoprotein Syndrome)
  5. http://www.healingtherapies.info/D-Mannose.htm (a urologists report on using Mannose for UTIs)
  6. http://www.lis.net.au/~dbird/glyconutrients.htm (A glyconutrient site by Dr David Bird MbChB, Dip Clinical Nutrition, FACNEM [Fellow of the Australian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine])