CAS Number: 1113-83-3
Molecule Formula: C11H19NO10
Molecule Weight: 325.3
1. Are N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Hanganutziu-Deicher) antigens important in pig-to-human xenotransplantation?
N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) epitopes, so called Hanganutziu-Deicher (HD) antigens, which are widely expressed on endothelial cells of all mammals except humans, are considered to be potential targets for natural and elicited anti-nonGalalpha1-3 Gal (Gal) antibodies in humans. We previously reported that anti-NeuGc antibodies were not detected in healthy humans by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using NeuGc-GM3-coated plates, and no antibody production was observed in patients with a history of exposure to pig cells. However, a recent paper has revealed that (i) anti-NeuGc antibodies to porcine red blood cells (PRBC) are detectable in most healthy humans, and (ii) the majority of anti-nonGal antibodies are specific for NeuGc epitopes. The purpose of this study was to reassess whether NeuGc is important as an immunogenic nonGal epitope. METHODS: The binding of antibodies to PRBC and porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) was compared. Cells were treated with (i) alpha-galactosidase, and then (ii) neuraminidase, which digests sialic acids, including NeuGc epitopes. Cells were incubated with human pooled sera, and applied to flow cytometric analysis. After enzyme digestion, almost complete reduction of Gal and NeuGc expression was confirmed by GS-IB4 and HU/Ch2-7 (a chicken monoclonal antibody against HD antigens), respectively. Trypsin, which removes membrane glycoproteins, and endoglycoceramidase which cleaves glycolipids, were used for differentiating between NeuGc-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids. RESULTS: Neuraminidase-treatment reduced the binding of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to PRBC; about half of the anti-nonGal IgG antibodies to PRBC were directed to NeuGc. In contrast, anti-nonGal antibodies to PAEC were not directed to NeuGc. Trypsin-treatment markedly reduced the expression of NeuGc only on PRBC. Endoglycoceramidase-treatment was followed by a greater reduction in NeuGc epitopes on PAEC than on PRBC. Most NeuGc on PRBC appeared to be linked to proteins, but most NeuGc on PAEC was expressed on glycolipids. CONCLUSIONS: Carbohydrate structures on PRBC are different from those on PAEC. Healthy human sera contain anti-nonGal IgG antibodies to NeuGc expressed on PRBC, but not on PAEC. We speculate that anti-nonGal IgG antibodies to PRBC can recognize both NeuGc and protein, and this may be the reason why such antibodies have not been detected by ELISA. A definite conclusion about the immunogenicity of NeuGc has not been obtained. More sera from patients (not from non-human primates) sensitized with porcine cells or organs need to be studied.
Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc ethylthioglycoside derivatives as glycosyl donors. Synthesis of aminopropyl glycosides of N-acetyl and N-glycolylneuraminic acid.
The synthesis of Neu5Gc thioglycoside derivative starting from corresponding Neu5Ac derivative via deprotection to Neu2SEt and subsequent N-glycolylation, esterification and acetylation is described. In the reaction sequence with a reversed order of esterification and glycolylation steps the Neu5Gc thioglycoside derivative with two hydroxy groups glycolylated has been obtained. These compounds are useful as glycosyl donors in sialylation reactions promoted with thiophilic reagents.
Purification and identification of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) from the holothuroidea Gumi, Cucumaria echinata.
N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), precious sialic acid which could not be synthesized by a chemical method, occurrs in the body of holothuroidea, Gumi Cucumaria echinata. Gumi contains 85% of total sialic acid, as Neu5Gc, in the body. Neu5Gc was purified from dry powder of the body using Dowex 1-x8 (HCOO* form) anion exchange chromatography after mild acid hydrolysis with 0.1 N trifluoroacetic acid. Using GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy, the purified Neu5Gc was correctly identified to be Neu5Gc. The purity of Neu5Gc was more than 99%. This is the first report of purification and identification of Neu5Gc from holothuroidea by using anion exchange chromatography, GC-MS, and 1H-NMR.