CAS No.: 9007-28-7
HS Code: 29329990.90
|Appearance: White, off white powder
| Loss on drying: <10%
| Solubility: 5% solution colorless to pale yellow
| Rotation: -20 - -30
| C.S. Content: >90% HPLC
| Sulfated Ash: 20 - 28%
| pH (1%): 5.5 - 8.0
| Aerobic Count: <1000 CFU/g
| Yeast & Mold: <100 CFU/g
| E. coli (in 1g): negative
| Salmonella: negative
| S. Aureus: negative
| Protein: <6.0%
| Chloride (USP): <1%
| Lead: <.5 ppm
| Particle Size: 100% through 20 mesh
Chondroitin sulfate belongs to a family of heteropolysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans or GAGs. Glycosaminoglycans were formerly known as mucopolysaccharides. GAGs in the form of proteoglycans comprise the ground substance in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. Chondroitin sulfate is made up of linear repeating units containing D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid. Chondroitin sulfate is found in humans in cartilage, bone, cornea, skin and the arterial wall. This type of chondroitin sulfate is sometimes referred to as chondroitin sulfate A or galactosaminoglucuronoglycan sulfate. The amino group of galactosamines in the basic unit of chondroitin sulfate A is acetylated, yielding N-acetyl-galactosamine; there is a sulfate group esterified to the 4-position in N-acetyl-galactosamine. (Chondroitin sulfate A is also sometimes called chondroitin 4-sulfate.) The molecular weight of chondroitin sulfate ranges from 5,000 to 50,000 daltons and contains about 15 to 150 basic units of D-galactosamine and D-glucuronic acid. Chondroitin Sulfate always used with Glucosamine sulfate in health supplement.
What are Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate?
Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are substances found naturally in the body. Glucosamine is a form of amino sugar that is believed to play a role in cartilage formation and repair. Chondroitin sulfate is part of a large protein molecule (proteoglycan) that gives cartilage elasticity.
Both glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are sold as dietary or nutritional supplements. They are extracted from animal tissue: glucosamine from crab, lobster or shrimp shells; and chondroitin sulfate from animal cartilage, such as tracheas or shark cartilage.
What do they do?
Past studies show that some people with mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) taking either glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate reported pain relief at a level similar to that of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Some research indicates that the supplements might also slow cartilage damage in people with OA. Definitive results about the effects of these supplements are expected from an in-depth clinical study currently being conducted by the National Institutes of Health.
What do I look for?
Because dietary supplements are unregulated, the quality and content may vary widely. If you decide to take these supplements:
- Choose products sold by large, well-established companies that can be held accountable.
- Read the product labels carefully to make sure the ingredient lists make sense to you. If you have trouble, ask your pharmacists for help.
- Be sure to consult your doctor before deciding to try these supplements.
- Make sure that OA is the cause of your pain.
- Do not stop or reduce your current prescribed medications without talking with your doctor.
How do I take them?
If you decide to take these supplements, consult your doctor about the proper dosage. The amount used in studies of glucosamine was 1,500 mg per day and in studies of chondroitin sulfate, 1,200 mg per day was used.
You can try the supplements along with your current medications for six to eight weeks. If you don't experience any difference in your symptoms within a few months, you probably will not get any relief from using the supplements.
Are there side effects?
The most common side effects are increased intestinal gas and softened stools. If you experience these problems, you might want to try another supplement brand before you stop using them altogether.
More studies need to be done to confirm the safety and effectiveness of the supplements. Be sure to contact your doctor if you notice any unusual or new symptoms while you are taking them.
- Children, women who are pregnant, and women who could become pregnant should not take these supplements. They have not been studied long enough to determine their effects on a child or on a developing fetus.
- Because glucosamine is an amino sugar, people with diabetes should check their blood sugar levels more frequently when taking this supplement.
- If you are taking chondroitin sulfate in addition to a blood-thinning medication or daily aspirin therapy, have your blood clotting time checked more often. This supplement is similar in structure to the blood-thinning drug heparin, and the combination may cause bleeding in some people.
- If you are allergic to shellfish, consult your doctor before deciding to take glucosamine. In most cases, however, allergies are caused by proteins in shellfish, not chitin, a carbohydrate from which glucosamine is extracted.
Published Clinical Studies on Chondroitin Sulphate:
1. The pathobiology of osteoarthritis and the rationale for using the chondroitin sulfate for its treatmen
Structure-modifying osteoarthritis (OA) drugs are agents that reverse, retard, or stabilize the pathology of OA, thereby providing symptomatic relief in the long-term treatment. The objective of this review is to evaluate the literature on chondroitin sulfate (CS) with respect to the pathobiology of OA to ascertain whether this agent should be classified as a symptomatic slow-acting drug (SYSADOA), a compound that has a slow onset of action and improve OA symptoms after a couple of weeks. CS exhibits a wide range of biological activities and from a pharmacological point of view it produces a slow but gradual decrease of the clinical symptoms of OA and these benefits last for a long period after the end of treatment. Many literature data show that CS could have an anti-inflammatory activity and a chondroprotective action by modifying the structure of cartilage. These properties are also related to the oral adsorption of this molecule as high-molecular mass compounds having clusters of sulfate groups and high charge density capable of exert their chondroprotective activity in vivo.
2. Clinical and histopathological improvement of psoriasis with oral chondroitin sulfate: A serendipitous finding.
We describe the clinical and histopathological results of plaque psoriasis in eleven adult patients with knee osteoarthritis and long-standing, moderate to severe psoriasis resistant to conventional therapy treated with chondroitin sulfate. Patients received 800 mg per day of chondroitin sulfate for 2 months. Skin biopsies were obtained before and after treatment. All patients but one presented a dramatic improvement of the condition of the skin, with a reduction of swelling, redness, flaking, and itching (clearance of psoriasis in one patient), increase in the hydration and softening of the skin, and amelioration of scaling. Histopathologically, there was a statistically significant decrease in epidermal thickness, a decrease in the thickness between the stratum basale and the stratum granulosum, a significant improvement of the degree of psoriasis activity, and a decrease in the number of keratinocytes stained with Ki-67. The confirmation of these serendipitous findings in controlled prospective studies could represent an important advance in the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with psoriasis given the excellent safety profile of chondroitin sulfate.
3. Intermittent treatment of knee osteoarthritis with oral chondroitin sulfate: a one-year, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study versus placebo.
To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a 3-month duration, twice a-year, intermittent treatment with oral chondroitin sulfate (CS) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. DESIGN: A total of 120 patients with symptomatic knee OA were randomized into two groups receiving either 800mg CS or placebo (PBO) per day for two periods of 3 months during 1 year. Primary efficacy outcome was Lequesne's algo-functional index (AFI); secondary outcome parameters included VAS, walking time, global judgment, and paracetamol consumption. Radiological progression was assessed by automatic measurement of medial femoro-tibial joint space width on weight-bearing X-rays of both knees. Clinical and biological tolerability was assessed. RESULTS: One hundred and ten of 120 patients were included in the ITT analysis. AFI decreased significantly by 36% in the CS group after 1 year as compared to 23% in the PBO group. Similar results were found for the secondary outcomes parameters. Radiological progression at month 12 showed significantly decreased joint space width in the PBO group with no change in the CS group. Tolerability was good with only minor adverse events identically observed in both groups. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidences that oral CS decreased pain and improved knee function. The 3-month intermittent administration of 800mg/day of oral CS twice a year does support the prolonged effect known with symptom-modifying agents for OA. The inhibitory effect of CS on the radiological progression of the medial femoro-tibial joint space narrowing could suggest further evidence of its structure-modifying properties in knee OA.
4. Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate are effective in the management of osteoarthritis.
The use of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis has been a subject of controversy for several reasons. First, the medical community in general took offense at the title of Theodosakis' book, The Arthritis Cure. Second, the medical community is becoming divided into "traditional" and "alternative" camps with deep skepticism between them. Third, the whole nutraceutical industry is essentially unregulated, with manufacturers making outrageous claims on products that have never been tested at all, are often of poor quality, and occasionally lacking in any active ingredient. However, for the nutriceuticals evaluated here, there is abundant in vitro, in vivo, animal clinical, and human clinical evidence of both their efficacy and safety. They deserve a prominent place in the armamentarium of nonsurgical treatment of osteoarthritis. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.