Formula : C18H36N2O12
Formula Weight: 472.49
CAS No.: 36687-82-8
Appearance: white crystalline powder
Assay: 98% Min
Specific rotation: -9.5 ~ -11 degree
Water content: 0.50% Max
Residue on ignition: 0.50% Max
Heavy metal: 0.002% Max
Arsenic: 0.0002% Max
pH (1%water solution): 3.0 ~ 4.5
Chloride: 0.4% Max
Content of L-Carnitine: 68.0%¡À1.0%
Content of L-Tartaric acid: 32.0%¡À1.0%
Characteristic: L-Carnitine Tartrate is the stable form of L-Carnitine. It is non-hygroscopic and is stable at damp conditions. It comes as a white crystalline powder and has a pleasant acidic taste. It is highly soluble in water, but has limited solubility in organic solvents.
L-Carnitine tartrate supplementation helps enhance performance and support weight management programme.
Did you know that originally L-Carnitine was isolated from beef in 1905 and that the nutrient derives its name from the Latin word carnis, meaning flesh? Initially L-Carnitine was termed as Vitamin BT and not until the late 1950s its obligatory role in the oxidation of long chain fatty acids was demonstrated. The adult body contains approximately 25 g of L-Carnitine largely found in skeletal muscle and heart.
L-Carnitine is a coenzyme and it is often characterized as a vitamin-like and an amino acid-like nutrient. In addition to deriving L-Carnitine from the diet ¨Cprimarily from meat ¨C the human body is able to synthesize it itself. The key enzymes responsible for the synthesis are present in most tissues and they are found to function during periods of protein metabolism. Much of the body¡¯s stores of L-Carnitine are found in skeletal muscle and heart and make out about 95%. The function of L-Carnitine as a fat burner L-Carnitine plays an obligatory role in the oxidation of long chain fatty acids in heart and muscle. The long chain fatty acids are the preferred substance in muscles for metabolic energy production. L-Carnitine facilitates the transport of long chain fatty acids to the mitochondria, where the eventual oxidation and energy production take place. Due to the fat burning property of L-Carnitine in muscles and consequentlyit¡¯s ability to increase energy level, L-Carnitine appears to be a perfect nutrient for athletes and for people wanting additional support for a weight loss program along with dietary changes and exercise. L-Carnitine is also said to improve the general condition of the heart, since it facilitates the break down of fat that builds up in this vital muscle. The heart has long been recognized as being highly dependent upon fatty acid oxidation for normal metabolic function. L-Carnitine tartrate supplementation In order to reap the health enhancing benefits of L-Carnitine, the nutrient is needed at levels above those normally obtained through the diet and endogenous synthesis. L-Carnitine tartrate, a stable salt, is one of the mostpreferred derivatives of the naturally occurring L-Carnitine. L-Carnitine tartrate is reported to have the same therapeutic effects like the L-Carnitine found in the human body. Who should supplement with L-Carnitine tratrate? If the body lacks L-Carnitine the mitochondria is being denied the needed fatty acid for energy production. Thus, the deficiency in L-Carnitine is manifested in low energy levels and muscular weakness. If the body is not burning fatty acids it must consequently be storing them. Thus, athletes and anyone who wants to improve muscle strength or increase fat burn - either with regard to heart or weight loss ¨C should supplement their diet with L-Carnitine tartrate. Especially vegetarians should be concerned about L-Carnitine deficiency due to the lack of L-Carnitine in vegetables and cereals.
The Scientific Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Materials in Contact with Food (AFC) has been asked to evaluate L-carnitine-L-tartrate as a source of L-carnitine for use in the manufacture of foods for particular nutritional uses. L-carnitine and L-carnitine hydrochloride are already permitted for use in foods for particular nutritional uses, including infant formulae, follow-on formulae, processed cereal-based foods and baby foods for infants and young children.
The evaluation was conducted in the context of proposed uses in foods for particular nutritional uses that might result in intakes of L-carnitine-L-tartrate of 1.5 - 3g/day in adults. L-carnitine-L-tartrate readily dissociates into L-carnitine and L-tartaric acid in the gastrointestinal tract. A human study has confirmed that the bioavailability of L-carnitine from L-carnitine-L-tartrate is similar to L-carnitine given as the free base. The upper value of 3g for intake of L-carnitine-L-tartrate would yield 1g of tartaric acid. This is equivalent to an intake of 16 mg tartaric acid/kg bodyweight/day for a 60kg adult, which is around half the Acceptable Daily Intake for tartaric acid of 0 ¨C 30 mg/kg bodyweight. Human tolerance of L-carnitine-L-tartrate up to 3g/day has been established in adults with respect to gastrointestinal symptoms, haematology and clinical chemistry, including markers of liver and kidney function; this is equivalent to 2g/day L-carnitine. Further assurance that this amount would be unlikely to cause gastrointestinal distress is available from human tolerance studies on L-carnitine given as the free base, in which gastrointestinal distress has only been reported after consumption of 4 - 6g/day. The petitioners¡¯ proposed use levels of L-carnitine-L-tartrate in soy-based infant formulae (1.2 mg L-carnitine/100kcal) would give daily intakes of 7.2 mg L-carnitine and 3.6 mg tartaric acid for 3-month-old infants. This intake of tartaric acid from infant formula would be equivalent to 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight/day. Based on the proposed levels of use and the dissociation of L-carnitine-L-tartrate into L-carnitine and L-tartaric acid, the Panel concluded that L-carnitine-L-tartrate is not of concern from the safety point of view as a source of L-carnitine for use in foods for particular nutritional uses, provided the Acceptable Daily Intake for tartaric acid from all sources in the diet is not regularly exceeded.