Chemical Name: 3,6-Dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid
Molecular Formula: C8H6Cl2O3
Apparent: Color Colorless solid
Melting Point: 114-116 DEG C
Molecular Weight 221.04
Density 1.57 at 25 deg C
Dicamba is released directly to the environment by its application as a herbicide for the control of annual broadleaf weeds. If released to soil, microbial degradation will probably be the major removal process under most conditions. The principal soil metabolite appears to be 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid. Dicamba is very mobile in most soils and significant leaching is possible. Based on the results of one study, volatilization from soil surfaces may not be an important process, although some volatilization may occur from plant surfaces. The half-life of dicamba in soil has been observed to vary from 4 to 555 days with the typical half-life being 1 to 4 weeks. Under conditions suitable to rapid metabolism, the half-life is less than two weeks. If released to water, microbial degradation appears to be the important dicamba removal process; photolysis may contribute to its removal from water. Aquatic hydrolysis, volatilization, adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration are not expected to be significant. If released to the atmosphere, dicamba will probably exist in both the vapor-phase and the adsorbed to particulate phase. The half-life for the vapor-phase reaction of dicamba with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated to be 6 days. Particulate phase dicamba will be subject to wet and dry deposition. General population exposure to dicamba may occur through oral consumption of contaminated drinking water. Occupational exposure via inhalation and dermal routes associated with application (spraying, loading and mixing) of dicamba as a herbicide may occur.
IT IS READILY LEACHED FROM SOILS ITS ABSORPTION IS STRONGEST @ LOWER PH LEVELS (4.0-6.0) & MINIMAL AT PH LEVELS HIGHER THAN 6.0. IT EXHIBITS INTERMEDIATE PERSISTENCE IN MANY SOIL SYSTEMS COMPARED TO OTHER HERBICIDES. PHOTODECOMPOSITION & RUNOFF HAVE LITTLE EFFECT ON PERSISTENCE. VERY LITTLE ((14)CARBON CARBOXYL)DICAMBA WAS LOST OVER AN 8 WK PERIOD WHEN TREATED SOILS WERE INCUBATED @ 35 DEG C UNDER VARIOUS RELATIVE HUMIDITIES (0-100%). SIMILAR STUDIES WITH (14)CARBON DICAMBA ON PLANCHETS SHOWED A 50% LOSS OF RADIOACTIVITY OVER PERIOD OF 11 WEEKS. TERRESTRIAL FATE: The persistence of bromoxynil, (14)C-dicamba, and propanil at 1 kg/ha were studied under lab conditions in a clay loam, a heavy clay and a sandy loam at 85% of field capacity and at 20 degrees, both singly and in the presence of herbicides normally applied with these chemicals as tank-mixture or split-mixture components. The breakdown of (14)C-dicamba in a particular soil was unaffected by being applied alone or in the presence of diclofop-methyl, flamprop-ethyl, MCPA, metribuzin, propanil or 2,4-D. The times for 50% of the applied dicamba to be degraded were approximately 16 days in both the clay loam and sandy loam, and about 50 days in the heavy clay. TERRESTRIAL FATE:The degradation of (14)C-dicamba was studied under field conditions at rates of 1 kg/ha in small sandy loam plots. Duplicate plots were samples to a depth of 10 cm after 45 and 95 weeks and extracted with aqueous acetonitrile to determine amounts of extractable radioactivity. After 45 weeks, soluble radioactivity recovered from the dicamba treated plots was less than 1% of that applied, whereas the nonextractable activity accounted for 2% of that applied. After 95 weeks, less than 1% of the applied radioactivity was, on the average, extractable from the dicamba, whereas 3% remained in a solvent nonextractable form. DICAMBA MAY PERSIST SIGNIFICANTLY LONGER UNDER CONDITIONS OF LOW SOIL MOISTURE & RAINFALL. UNDER CONDITIONS AMENABLE TO RAPID METABOLISM, DICAMBA HAS A HALF LIFE OF LESS THAN 14 DAYS. TERRESTRIAL FATE: Microbial degradation is probably the major fate process for the removal of dicamba from soil under most conditions . The principal soil metabolite of dicamba appears to be 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid(1-2). Dicamba is very mobile in soil and significant leaching is possible. Based on the results of one study, volatilization from soil surfaces may not be an important process, although some volatilization may occur from plant surfaces. In one review of literature of dicamba persistence in soil, the percent lost/day was found to range from 0.09 to 12.50% (which corresponds to half-lives of 4 to 555 days assuming first-order kinetics), with most of the data indicating a half-life of two to four weeks . In another review of persistence literature, the mean half-life under laboratory conditions was 14 days while the mean half-life under field conditions was 8 days . It has been reported that under conditions suitable to rapid metabolism, dicamba has a half-life of less than two weeks(1,SRC). AQUATIC FATE: Based on the results of various studies, microbial degradation appears to be the important dicamba removal process in natural water . Photolysis may contribute to dicamba removal from water . Aquatic hydrolysis, volatilization, adsorption to sediment, and bioconcentration are not expected to be significant. ATMOSPHERIC FATE: With a vapor pressure of 3.4X10-5 mm Hg at 25 deg C , dicamba released to the atmosphere will probably exist in both the vapor-phase and the adsorbed to particulate phase(2,SRC). The half-life for the vapor-phase reaction of dicamba with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals has been estimated to be 2.42 days . Particulate phase dicamba will be subject to wet and dry deposition. The herbicide dicamba has a half life of 31 days with a first-order rate constant of 0.0224/day in a typical midwestern agricultural soil under aerobic conditions. The half life of dicamba in the same soil after the soil was made anaerobic at 30 days is 58 days with a first-order rate constant of 0.012/day. Dicamba is completely mineralized to CO2 under aerobic conditions with 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid as the only major metabolite. Low levels of 2,3-dihydroxy-3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid were detected. Metabolism under anaerobic conditions is similar to that which occurred in aerobic soil except the rate of dicamba metabolism is reduced under anaerobic conditions.
Benzoic acidic & selective and systematic herbicide to control annual and Perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, small grains, rice and wheat. Herbicide to control C. album, Malchium aqualis (L.) Fries, Descurainia Sophia, Convolvulus arvensis, Eclipta prostrata in corn, wheat small grains and rice. Spray after young plants are fully grown. Easily absorbed by leaves, roots and stems of weeds and transmitted through phloem and xylem. Mostly accumulated at parts where acervulus and metabolites gather intensely to interfere the normal activities of phyto-hormones and make them die. If released to soil, microbial degradation will probably be the major removal process under most conditions. After its application for the annual or perennial broadleaf weeds, standing grains exhibit strong resistance against the herbicide and broadleaf weeds begin to appear curled and withering within 24 hours and die in 15-20 days.
Dicamba has been qualitatively detected in tributaries feeding Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and Lake St. Clair . Dicamba was detected in one of 949 stream waters analyzed from 11 agricultural watersheds in Ontario Canada, at a concn of 0.7 ppb, during 1975-76 monitoring; 1976-77 monitoring detected no dicamba(2-3). During a 1981-1985 survey of Ontario rivers, dicamba was detected in 3.9% samples from Grand River at a maximum concentration of 0.4 ug/L, in 2.1% samples from Saugeen River at a maximum concn of 13 ug/L and 18.1% samples from Thames River at maximum concn of 1.1 ug/L . GROUNDWATER: Based on its sorption properties in soils, it was estimated that a mean concentration of 1X10-5 ug/L of dicamba will leach into groundwater resulting from a 1.0 kg/ha application of the herbicide under conventional soil-till conditions . EFFL: Dicamba was detected in effluents from a chemical plant and a sewage treatment plant discharging into the Chattanooga Creek in Feb 1973 . It has also been identified in effluent concentrates taken from advanced waste treatment facilities in Lake Tahoe CA.